Prime numbers

Pensions in different countries

Russian officials are increasingly saying that citizens themselves need to take care of the size of future pensions. First, it is necessary to save for retirement on your own, said Finance Minister Anton Siluanov. Now his idea is being developed by the Ministry of Economic Development, which introduced a program of voluntary savings of citizens. At the same time, the funded part of the pension, which accounted for 6% of 22% of payments made by employees to the Pension Fund, has been frozen for several years, and all the money goes to payments to current pensioners. However, there is not enough money for indexing pensions for them. Life around studied how things are going with pensions in different countries, and compared their systems with the Russian one.

USA

Retirement age

67 years old

Average pension

1,500 dollars a month

How to get

- pay a 15% payroll tax for ten years for a social pension

- work in the company for five to six years for a corporate pension (the maximum amount of contributions is $ 18,000 per year)

- save any amount on a pension account yourself


Features of the pension system

The total amount of pension assets in 2015 amounted to $ 24 trillion. Money is invested in financial instruments, including stocks. Both private foundations and the Social Security Administration are involved in this (it manages $ 2.8 trillion in social security contributions). It employs 65 thousand people across the country, and the cost of its maintenance is approximately 0.39% of the amount of social pension assets per year.

Israel

RETIREMENT AGE

60-62 years (gives the right to receive old-age benefits)

AVERAGE PENSION

1,500 dollars (after transferring money to a pension fund for 30 years)

HOW TO GET

- give from 6.95% to 18.5% of the salary to the National Insurance Office for an old-age benefit of $ 370 per month

- pay deductions to pension funds for a minimum of ten years (then you can count on retirement from $ 700 per month)


Features of the pension system

According to the first half of 2016, the country's total pension assets amounted to $ 170 billion. There are several types of pension funds in Israel. Old funds were non-profit cooperatives and could pay pensions not only in money, but also in kind. But with the increase in the number of depositors in the 90s, they developed a deficit, which reached $ 25 billion by the beginning of the new century. The state was engaged in the reorganization of funds, and their depositors raised the retirement age to 64-67 years. In the 2000s, new funds began to appear, money in which both employees and companies can invest. The average contribution to such funds is 11% of the salary. In addition, many immigrants come to Israel who did not pay money to the funds - the Ministry of Finance pays them old age benefits.

Great Britain

Retirement age

60-65 years old

Average pension

1,590 pounds per month (about $ 2,000)

How to get

- transfer money to a social insurance fund for at least ten years to receive a basic state pension

- save money yourself on a pension account in a non-state fund


Features of the pension system

This year, the rules for calculating pensions have changed. Those who retired before April 6 of this year had the opportunity to receive a basic pension from the state in the amount of a maximum of 119.3 pounds per week, as well as an additional pension if they deducted money in excess of this through the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme (maximum 160 pounds per week ) Those who retired this year will be able to receive only one pension from the state - a maximum of 155.65 pounds per week. The average state pension is 130 pounds per week. But in reality, pensioners get more thanks to independent savings. So, in 2013-2014, the average pension exceeded the average income of a working Briton.

France

Retirement age

60-62 years

Average pension

1000 euros

How to get

- monthly transfer to the pension fund 16.35% of income to receive a basic pension

- pay insurance premiums to Arrco and Agirc cash desks to receive additional points that will increase the size of the pension


Features of the pension system

All French have the right to receive a pension, but it is advisable to work out more than 40 years. If the experience is not enough, a person is paid a pension of solidarity. Typically, the pension is calculated on the basis of payments to the pension fund and points earned from additional contributions. Moreover, the pension system has a distributional character: money is paid to pensioners from the income of working citizens.

China

Retirement age

50-60 years

Average pension:

1,000 yuan (about $ 150)

How to get

work in the civil service or industry for at least 15 years, deducting 11% of the salary


Features of the pension system

Initially, only civil servants had the right to retire, but then the system was also extended to workers, and now more than half of pensioners receive it. The size of the pension depends on salary and place of residence: citizens receive more than residents of rural areas.

Russia

Retirement age

55-60 years old

Average pension

12 406 rubles (about 200 dollars)

How to get

- deduct 22% of the salary to the Pension Fund
(rate for income in excess of 711 thousand rubles per year - 10%)

- save up for retirement yourself


Features of the pension system

Compulsory pension contributions are managed by the Russian Pension Fund, which employs 130 thousand people. The fund’s budget for 2015 amounted to 7.126 trillion rubles (113 billion dollars), half of them were deductions from citizens, the other from revenues from the federal budget. The PFR budget deficit was about half a trillion rubles. Until 2014, deductions of citizens were divided into joint and funded parts. Including citizens had the opportunity to transfer this money to non-state funds. Now 31 million Russians have accounts in non-state pension funds, in total there are about 2 trillion rubles on them. In recent years, due to a lack of funds, all money goes to the solidarity part, to pay pensions to current pensioners.

Varvara Gryaznova took part in the preparation of the material

Watch the video: Moving within Europe - which country will pay my old-age pension? (November 2019).

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